Configuration Files - Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4

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Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4

Apache > HTTP Server > Documentation > Version 2.4Configuration Files

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This document describes the files used to configure Apache HTTP

 Main Configuration Files
 Syntax of the Configuration Files
 Scope of Directives
 .htaccess Files
See alsoComments

Main Configuration Files
    Related ModulesRelated Directivesmod_mime<IfDefine>IncludeTypesConfig

    Apache HTTP Server is configured by placing directives in plain text
    configuration files. The main configuration file is usually called
    httpd.conf. The location of this file is set at
    compile-time, but may be overridden with the -f
    command line flag. In addition, other configuration files may be
    added using the Include
    directive, and wildcards can be used to include many configuration
    files. Any directive may be placed in any of these configuration
    files. Changes to the main configuration files are only
    recognized by httpd when it is started or restarted.

    The server also reads a file containing mime document types;
    the filename is set by the TypesConfig directive,
    and is mime.types by default.

Syntax of the Configuration Files

    httpd configuration files contain one directive per line.
    The backslash "\" may be used as the last character on a line
    to indicate that the directive continues onto the next line.
    There must be no other characters or white space between the
    backslash and the end of the line.

    Arguments to directives are separated by whitespace. If an 
    argument contains spaces, you must enclose that argument in quotes.

    Directives in the configuration files are case-insensitive,
    but arguments to directives are often case sensitive. Lines
    that begin with the hash character "#" are considered
    comments, and are ignored. Comments may not be
    included on the same line as a configuration directive. 
    White space occurring before a directive is ignored, so
    you may indent directives for clarity. Blank lines are also ignored.

    The values of variables defined with the Define of or shell environment variables can
    be used in configuration file lines using the syntax ${VAR}.
    If "VAR" is the name of a valid variable, the value of that variable is
    substituted into that spot in the configuration file line, and processing
    continues as if that text were found directly in the configuration file.
    Variables defined with Define take
    precedence over shell environment variables.
    If the "VAR" variable is not found, the characters ${VAR}
    are left unchanged, and a warning is logged.
    Variable names may not contain colon ":" characters, to avoid clashes with
    RewriteMap's syntax.

    Only shell environment variables defined before the server is started
    can be used in expansions. Environment variables defined in the
    configuration file itself, for example with SetEnv, take effect too late to be used for
    expansions in the configuration file.

    The maximum length of a line in normal configuration files, after
    variable substitution and joining any continued lines, is approximately
    16 MiB. In .htaccess files, the
    maximum length is 8190 characters.

    You can check your configuration files for syntax errors
    without starting the server by using apachectl
    configtest or the -t command line

    You can use mod_info's -DDUMP_CONFIG to
    dump the configuration with all included files and environment
    variables resolved and all comments and non-matching
    <IfDefine> and
    <IfModule> sections
    removed. However, the output does not reflect the merging or overriding
    that may happen for repeated directives.


    Related ModulesRelated Directivesmod_so<IfModule>LoadModule

    httpd is a modular server. This implies that only the most
    basic functionality is included in the core server. Extended
    features are available through modules which can be loaded
    into httpd. By default, a base set of modules is
    included in the server at compile-time. If the server is
    compiled to use dynamically loaded
    modules, then modules can be compiled separately and added at
    any time using the LoadModule
    Otherwise, httpd must be recompiled to add or remove modules.
    Configuration directives may be included conditional on a
    presence of a particular module by enclosing them in an <IfModule> block. However,
    <IfModule> blocks are not
    required, and in some cases may mask the fact that you're missing an
    important module.

    To see which modules are currently compiled into the server,
    you can use the -l command line option. You can also
    see what modules are loaded dynamically using the -M
    command line option.

Scope of Directives

    Related ModulesRelated Directives<Directory><DirectoryMatch><Files><FilesMatch><Location><LocationMatch><VirtualHost>

    Directives placed in the main configuration files apply to
    the entire server. If you wish to change the configuration for
    only a part of the server, you can scope your directives by
    placing them in <Directory>, <DirectoryMatch>, <Files>, <FilesMatch>, <Location>, and <LocationMatch>
    sections. These sections limit the application of the
    directives which they enclose to particular filesystem
    locations or URLs. They can also be nested, allowing for very
    fine grained configuration.

    httpd has the capability to serve many different websites
    simultaneously. This is called Virtual
    Hosting. Directives can also be scoped by placing them
    inside <VirtualHost>
    sections, so that they will only apply to requests for a
    particular website.

    Although most directives can be placed in any of these
    sections, some directives do not make sense in some contexts.
    For example, directives controlling process creation can only
    be placed in the main server context. To find which directives
    can be placed in which sections, check the Context of the
    directive. For further information, we provide details on How Directory, Location and Files sections

.htaccess Files

    Related ModulesRelated DirectivesAccessFileNameAllowOverride

    httpd allows for decentralized management of configuration
    via special files placed inside the web tree. The special files
    are usually called .htaccess, but any name can be
    specified in the AccessFileName
    directive. Directives placed in .htaccess files
    apply to the directory where you place the file, and all
    sub-directories. The .htaccess files follow the
    same syntax as the main configuration files. Since
    .htaccess files are read on every request, changes
    made in these files take immediate effect.

    To find which directives can be placed in
    .htaccess files, check the Context of the
    directive. The server administrator further controls what
    directives may be placed in .htaccess files by
    configuring the AllowOverride
    directive in the main configuration files.

    For more information on .htaccess files, see
    the .htaccess tutorial.

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CommentsNotice:This is not a Q&A section. Comments placed here should be pointed towards suggestions on improving the documentation or server, and may be removed again by our moderators if they are either implemented or considered invalid/off-topic. Questions on how to manage the Apache HTTP Server should be directed at either our IRC channel, #httpd, on Freenode, or sent to our mailing lists.

Copyright 2017 The Apache Software Foundation.Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0.
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